By reading this article, you will be able to build a variable speed setup for,
Wood Working Routers
Circular Saws/ Skill Saws
For Mini Precision Tools with AC Motors
This setup also can be used for below purposes,Dimming circuit for Filament Bulbs
Dimming circuit for GLS Bulbs
Can control Kitchen Mixer
This circuit is basically a voltage regulating unit, which works on SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier). Currently in the market there are two types. One is rated at 2000 W and other at 4000 W. You can make a decision depending on your power requirement.
Note: This circuit will not work with ‘Power Tools’ which have following features. Speed Pre-Selection, Soft-Start, Restart-Protection. If this circuit is bypassed, it will work.
Work on a table. Not on floor. If a person gets in contact with 220 V, the electricity makes the person weaker. The brain tries to break contact due to reflex action. If the person is lying on the floor, he won’t be able to gather up energy to escape the situation. Hence work safe.
The SCR unit produces heat. Provide ventilation to avoid damage to the circuit.
Which SCR to buy?
Like said, SCRs are available in different power ratings. Lowest at 2000 w and up to 4000 w or more in future. Previously these circuits had higher cost of production. Today, technology has advanced and these SCRs are easily available for the end consumer.
Purchasing a SCR solely depends on the power consumed by the device to be used with. As an example, an angle grinder with a power rating of 600 watts will consume more or less 600 w in usage. But the initial current will be high that we need to take care of. Hence it is always better to consider twice as much it consumes during working.
SCR Purchase Link: Amazon.in
A 2000 watt SCR will run smoothly with a 1000 W load without much heating. I personally use a 2000W SCR to control the speed of my 5 inch 1200 watt Angle Grinder. I had built this circuit in 2018. Still running fine. No issues whatsoever.
Wiring the SCR
In this project, its recommended to provide earthing to SCR body if made of metal (Metal enclosure carry a very small leakage about 20-30 volts if measured against earth) While preparing enclosures, make sure the terminals don’t short with each other due to the enclosure. Make connections according to below diagram.
Tip: No need to connect the neutral to the SCR. Neutral terminal on the SCR is commonly connected. Electronic circuits like SCRs, DC Voltage Boosters, Buck Converters not necessarily need the Negative input.
Configuring The SCR for Speed control
You need to set the minimum voltage output in the SCR using the screw on the W103 Potentiometer (Blue Colored) which is already mounted on the circuit.
(A easy to understand video link has been provided at the bottom)
Before you do this, you need to connect the circuit to the mains, the output to be measured with a Multimeter, and the device to be used with the SCR should be connected. You can use a GLS Bulb too. If you connect an Angle Grinder, remove the disc, flange and nut. Remember not to place the circuit on a metal table while configuring it as this will short the circuit and burn it.
Note: The minimum voltage output depends on the AC voltage input. Assume, the day you set the SCR, if the input voltage was 250 volts, and you set the output to 50 volts, then you will always receive 50 volts as output unless and until the input varies.
Now, at some point of the day, if the input voltage drops to 230 volts, ( Yes! Voltage will vary. It’s not in your control) then the output voltage of the SCR drops too. Don’t decide that the SCR has gone kaput.
Tip: If no device is connected to the SCR output, you will receive full AC output itself.
Watch this simple video demo. Please ignore the background noise.
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